中国动画现在的发展如何?

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其实挺多人问这个问题的,我不知道问这些问题的朋友们有没有了解到,商业动画就是个商品,投资商业动画的首要目的就是赚钱,不赚钱的事情没人去做。抛开商业动画这块,中国本土也不是没有动画,之前网上比较流行的《打个大西瓜》《茗记》之类还是有一些认可的。但那些动画都是爱好者们用热情堆出来的,是不可能赚钱的。

那么,怎样的动画才赚钱?在中国大陆,动画的赚钱模式有两大类。一个是《蓝猫淘气三千问》《喜羊羊与灰太狼》这种传统的儿童类动画作品,通过授权玩具来赚钱。这条路在大陆很窄,因为大陆制作周边产品是不用付授权费的,随便谁都可以制作。直接的结果就是,即使作品受欢迎,动画公司也赚不到多少钱。

第二种,骗补贴。国家对制作动画是有补帖的,你百度一下“动画 补贴”,可以找到很多内容,我这里就不罗列了。基本情况就是,一个老板,随便出个片子的方案,拿到补贴,然后随便应付了事,剩下的钱,就是这部动画的“收益”。这和动画的质量完完全全没有关系。而为了可以确保通过审查和拿到补贴,什么样的作品最稳妥?就是我们现在电视上看到的那些。

我们回到正正经经做动画的问题上来。假设我们真有心做一部商业动画,那么应该做什么样的?答案还是做喜羊羊那样的。

我们看看作品的受众群体。

动画最理想的受众群体就是少年儿童,特别是儿童,对动画的接受程度高。其次,大陆的少年儿童数量大(不像日本,少子化问题导致儿童数量减少)。最后,少年儿童的消费潜力大。当然并不是说孩子自己会去买东西,而是儿童需要的很多东西都是可以做产品的,比如玩具、图书、服饰,年龄大一点的需要文具等等。基数大,市场就很可观。

另一方面,动画作品在其他节目面前是很弱势的。比如下午起6点左右的新闻、7点左右的综艺节目、8点~10点黄金时段的电视剧。之后就是收市率下降的深夜时段。而白天是工作和上学的时间,同样时收视低谷。

所以动画的黄金时段是下午5点左右,这个时段是成人还没下班,或者忙着晚饭的时间,时间比较充裕的就是小朋友和学生。所以如果做动画,这个时段就是最理想的,因为这个时段的主要观众就是各个年龄段的学生,这些人是动画的核心观众。

至于11点以后的深夜时段,作为青年动画的主要时段,就只有日本这么特殊的地方才能发展出来,其他国家很难去复制。因为青年动画市场是靠御宅族群体撑起来的,这个群体会去消费高价的影像制品和周边产品,虽然整体市场无法和儿童市场比,但是因为这个市场推陈出新速度快,资金流动也快,属于风险大收益大,也有不少投资方愿意尝试这个市场。

中国大陆是完全没有这个环境。中国大陆的青年群体连看广告都不愿意,不可能指望他们靠消费撑起市场。

所以如果做动画,基本就是针对下午5点这个时段来做,也就是做少年儿童类的作品。

但是,少年儿童类动画和质量无关,看看迪斯尼的动画就知道了。所以问题从来都不是在年龄层上面,而是中国动画市场早就已经陷入了一个怪圈出不来。

不赚钱→没人投资→没有钱→靠理想憋出一部还算可以的→有点起色→政府整顿→变成了烂动画→不赚钱。

所以你只能指望有一个土豪,砸大把钱做一部动画,品质还不错,然后奇迹般地大家都愿意掏钱买正版的商品,于是大赚一笔,更不可思议的是政府居然还大发慈悲没有干预。然后又有一个土豪,也砸了一大块钱来做,又奇迹般地赚了。等这个奇迹多发生几次,中国动画就有希望了。

一天中国大陆的知识产权观念建立不起来,一天中国的创意产业就没有指望。

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貌似这问题还上知乎日报了……我只能说,不知道用什么表情来面对。

随便扯两句,随便你们拍砖吧。

一、中国动画烂吗?有多烂?

我真的不知道你们到底是怎么定义“烂”的。国内综合实力能上前十的文化产业真的不多,如果这也叫烂,那中国影坛和文坛都不用混了。

哦,你可能会对我这个前十的说法有疑问,稍作下解释。如果不计动画产量和产值——当然,大家都知道,国产动画的产量就是个玩笑而已——而仅仅考虑动画本身的质量,你甚至会惊奇的发现中国动画依然处在前十的领域。

真的别不信,我已经在知乎回答过好几次世界其他地区动画的问题了,天天在 4chan,toonzone,tvtropes,ANN 之类的英文圈子里混,欧美国家有啥电视动画总都是听说过的。在我看来,世界上动画产业成熟的国家只有两个半:一个美国,一个日本,法国算半个。这里,我们是只考量电视动画和长篇电影动画的结果,艺术动画短片那就没得比了,哪个国家没几个拿得出手的短片呢。美国与日本,这是第一阶梯。

第二阶梯呢,法国是领头羊,而且半只脚踏入第一阶梯——只有一半,因为法国的电视动画水准,远远比不上电影动画,而单论后者,法国是毫不逊色于美日两国的。再往下来,英国,中国,韩国,加拿大。其中,英国虽有定格动画传统,但是本土的电视动画实力,真的比起法国太弱了,电视台播的动画,虽然是英国出品,但是干活的都是 CN、DIC 以及法国、加拿大的各种动画工作室。韩国和加拿大的原画实力是我将他们排在前面的理由,两地的合拍片众多,完全原创的动画就很少,中国则相反,这三个国家,怎么排都是有道理的。第二阶梯再往后,意大利的电视动画在本土漫画的影响下处于上升期;而比利时,巴西之类的国家,都是有电影动画而电视动画几乎空白的;俄罗斯呢,自从苏联解体以后动画地位一落千丈,归结到底和中国改革开放前后是一样的道理;台湾外包实力强大但原创作品极其稀少;最后是刚刚起步的印度,伊朗,马来,泰国等等。

掰着指头数,这世界上有动画产业的国家不超过二十个。再掰着指头数,中国的动画,怎么说也是个中上游,大概是个 6、7 位的水平。你再对比下中国影坛和文坛在世界中的地位,所以就很奇怪,到底是怎么的中国动画就让你们觉得烂了?

几个原因。

一,第二阶梯和第一阶梯之间的差距太大了,这个差距要远远大于文学、影视领域里一二线国家的差距。换句话说,单纯是美日把其他国家甩太远了而已。这些年看法国、加拿大、意大利等国的一流原创电视动画(换句话说就是不是给美国佬打工的动画,法国的 Wakfu、Les Mystérieuses Cités d’or,意大利的 W.i.t.c.h、Mia and Me,加拿大的 Skyland),和国内一流的素质是差不多的(星游记、神魄、凯能等)。第二阶梯在电视动画领域里拉不开差距,除了 Wakfu 可能算非美日电视动画里制作最精良的,要胜上一筹。

二,从美术片的时代走过来,心理落差太大了。我只能说,看看隔壁苏联,哦不,俄罗斯吧,还有东欧那票人……只有艺术动画而没有强大的电视动画作支撑,根本就无法形成产业,更谈不上有什么发展。再想想美日电视是什么时候普及的,国内什么时候才有电视。没落到俄罗斯那般境遇,已经万幸了。

三,一部分太过于劣质的动画拉低了整体中国动画的形象。这本来并不是问题,美日动画里烂货也一大堆。但是一个成熟的市场环境,会自然淘汰掉那些低劣作品,国内的情况是太多了。本身中国市场就太大,适龄观众对动画的需求量也很多,而学龄前这个阶段很难有分辨好坏的能力,根本就无从淘汰,更何况还有大量骗补贴捞一票就走的人存在。

四,大多数人只是需要一个发泄的口子而已。这些年国内的精神文明建设,真的是一塌糊涂,房价居高不下,物价飞涨,聊起任何国家管制/扶持下的产业,每个人都只有一股戾气而已,根本谈不上有任何建设性的建议和了解,动画是躺枪频频。要知道,做动画又不是一个国家选出十一个做代表拿到世界上去比一比,一场没踢赢就算烂——每个动画作品都有他自己的名字啊!烂作品归烂,说中国动画烂,你让那些好的作品情何以堪。一部烂《富春山居图》能代表中国电影烂吗,我相信依然在认真做电影的人恐怕都不会服气吧。而且就算有个国家队,至少中国动画也还能进球呗!

简单点说,中国动画目前是二线中上游水准,单看排名是不错,其实大多数是在及格线上下徘徊着(话说回来,二线国家又有哪个不是呢),离美日差距太远了,半个世纪内看有没有希望赶上吧。要说烂,我实在无法苟同,感情我天天都在看二线国家的烂动画?《戚继光英雄传》、《雷锋的故事》确实叫烂,但大多数国产动画如《喜羊羊》《熊出没》之流,只不过不符合吃惯了国外现在的山珍海味和国内曾经的满汉全席的食客们口味罢了;而小部分如《神魄》《凯能》之流,是现在条件能做到最好的结果,虽然仍离一线国家的一流有差距,但至少不会比一线国家的二流差,确确实实是看得到成长。

如果你非要觉得烂,那我也无法阻止你的想法。不过肯定还不算烂到家,嗯,再看一眼隔壁毛熊。

二、为什么要继续做

做《喜羊羊》和《熊出没》的人,肯定不会认为自己出的是烂片,很显然,他们当然要继续做,动画是艺术,但也是商品,能满足观众需求又能赚钱的品牌为什么不继续做,这不是多余的问题吗?

做《戚继光》和《雷锋》的人,心里肯定也知道自己出的是烂片,很显然,他们也自然要继续做,因为本来就是来骗钱的,能骗钱为什么不继续做,这不是多余的问题吗?

所以实际上是——”为什么明明中国动画有这么多(我认为的)烂片还是要继续出(我认为的)烂片?“答案很简单,你不是当前需要给大多数国产动画买单的人,你的”认为“对投资/制片/创作者没有价值。

你必须承认的一个事实是,实际上绝大多数国家生产的绝大多数动画,是给孩子看的。贸然做成熟叙事、激烈动作作画的动画,收效反而不如走喜剧/情景剧路线、分镜/Layout/动画趋于安定的作品,太晃眼的画面反而不如一团团明艳的大色块有效果。前不久一朋友拿《合神泰坦》给小学生在课堂里放,结果反而大家更爱看《彩虹小马》。

我这里有比较惨痛的几个教训。美国,Genndy Tartakovsky(《飞天小女警》《杰克武士》的创作者)大前年拍了部电视动画叫《合神泰坦》(Sym-Bionic Titan),这部动画在美国电视动画领域里,动作戏算是很细腻的,剧本是走英雄叙事路线而非一般的单元情景剧,面对的观众群体自然也要稍成熟一些,但是遗憾的是,腰斩了。Genndy 也因此心灰意冷,离开 Orphanage 不再给 CN 干活而转投索尼动画,出了他自己的第一部动画电影《精灵旅社》。嗯,本来不用提后面的事的,不过正好《精灵旅社》马上国内上映了,我算是给自己最喜欢的美国动画人义务打个小广告吧。

无独有偶,国内前几年有个《星游记》,和《合神泰坦》一样,死了。法国,前几年 Wakfu 在法国网络甚至英文动画圈刮起风暴的时候,是类似的结局。尽管 Wakfu 有着超水平的动画质量和美术设计,但是更多只是受网络上青少年及成年人的喜好而已。在这种情况下,制作方 Ankama 在两季之后将其后续延后,改作喜剧向、低龄向的 Dofus,希望用这部作品的成绩打动 France 3 台以期继续完成 Wakfu。其实就是曲线救国,只不过相比《合神泰坦》和《星游记》幸运,Wakfu 是和网游挂边的,本来自家财力就更充裕,而且法国相对于日式长篇叙事类的作品接受度本身就比其他国家要高,所以好歹还有个盼头罢了。

所以,尽管看起来网络上有着大批的日漫迷,宅,二次元,随便你怎么叫,但是依然不是本国动画的绝对消费主力。因为即使适合他们观看作品出现,这些刚新生的苗头很容易就被拿来和日本同类型作品相比较,在历经商业洗礼的日本动画面前很容易就败北——他们并不是不够出色,只是不够会抓观众、卖产品。

认为版权是当下最大问题也好,认为审查是当下最大问题也好,他们确实会制约动画的发展,但还不是最关键的,大多数时候只是拿来欺骗自己罢了。美国人版权意识好吗?美国人审查制度完善吗?看《合神泰坦》的人不还是都在网上下载,这片明明没什么出格内容还不是莫名其妙就从 TV-PG 给掰到了 Adult Swim 上面,不尴不尬的。

承认一个现实吧,这世界上有叫好不叫座,但是被网络上铁杆粉丝买单,而把腰斩剧复活的科幻剧集,这是科幻迷的力量,没错,我说的就是 Firefly;但除了日本以外,动画界再没有类似复活的案例,全世界包括美国都没有。别看着动画迷网上一大堆,实际上力量相较于科幻迷来说太薄弱了,否则就不是现在的情况。

所以美国的《合神泰坦》没有复活,尽管都已经请愿到白宫去要求做后续;国内的《星游记》没有复活,尽管这应该是国内成年人粉丝社区人数最多的动画之一;只有日本的《高达 0079》复活了,于是日本的动画开始向青少年、成年转型,那是日本曾经御宅族的力量。其他国家,还没有到那个时候。什么时候,国内出一部成熟的动画作品被腰斩,但是被动画迷救活,到时候自然就有青年动画的诞生。

所以,最关键是大多数人根本就不了解动画是个什么东西,对于大多数来说动画就是可有可无的存在(如问出此问题的题主),没有消费动画的能力,没有创作动画的欲望,没有了解动画的冲动,仅仅是喜欢动画,是完全不够的。

要期待适合青少年以及成年人看的动画出现,只能逐渐开始培养本国的忠实观众,再没有别的选择了。我不觉得这需要什么奇迹才能做到,事实上奥飞正在做的不就是这件事吗?奥飞的特摄系列每一部都能看到成长,视美的 2D 作画水准也是逐渐在提高,遗憾的是大家都不去关注罢了,50 年后成为国内的 BANDAI X TOEI 也说不准。这世界上也根本没什么奇迹,动画就是门技术积累,靠时间慢慢堆积,只要市场继续保持良好,质量总是会提升起来的。

三 为什么不求改进?

这大概是我看到最冤枉的质问了。

没改进?天地良心,我看到的是从 00 年后一直在进步啊!拿视美为例吧。关注视美的人应该会记得最早些爆出缇可抄袭日本动画分镜的事儿——其实没分镜多少事儿,多数还是构图比较雷同。但是视美之后似乎确实在注意这些问题,而且作画质量也确实在逐渐积累。至少,国内的动画中,视美对于烟、雾、水汽、火焰、爆炸、光等特效的作画是目前来说国内最出众的。

我之前截取了一段视美新作《神魄》的 GIF,丢上来吧:
weibo.com/1804531244/Af

挥拳的时候轨迹依然有些微妙,但是这几 cut 确实是国内目前电视动画里少见的良心了。

以及之前的《梦月精灵》,不过这部的剧本和演出都相对来说要逊色许多:
weibo.com/1804531244/A5

从《月尘》到《神魄》,视美的原画积累是一直在进行的,也能看得出他们的成长。”不求改进“这几个字,我觉得实在不太恰当。

有趣的是,当前国内的原画师,学习金田流的非常多。《神魄》简直就是个金田厨聚集地,比如大量出现以至于莫名其妙的金田光:


以及《星游记》里大量的《天元突破》致敬,《神魄》里的金田光和模仿龟田祥伦等新晋金田流原画师的作画,以至于我都怀疑近期的国内原画师们是否人手一本《天元》《银河美少年》原画集了。

另一方面,奥飞的剧本是越来越有趣,尽管依然是面向小孩子观看,但是戏剧性强了不少,尤其体现在其特摄作品和 3D 动画中。在看《钢铁飞龙》、《神魄》之类的片子时,我也完全没料到后续会有怎样的展开。

但是我这里怎么说,你们肯定也不会有人去看的,无趣的大人嘛。所以国内动画到底有没有进步,其实也没几个人真的热心在关注,无非就是听到谁谁谁说 XXX 又抄袭啦,听到新闻上说 XXX 又跳楼自杀了,你们的关注点根本就不在动画上面,只是需要一条可供消遣的新闻噱头而已,谁在乎中国动画到底是在怎么发展呢?

碎碎念就到这里呗,又在一个无聊的问题上浪费几个小时时间。睡觉去了。
随便拍砖,别上知乎日报,挺丢人的,而且这问题题目看着我都闹心。一切不问”是不是“直接问”为什么“的都是耍流氓,所以是破问题一个,鉴定完毕。

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